Company Profile

1. What experience does your company have in providing online samples for market research?

Founded in 2010, Lucid revolutionized the sampling industry with our creation of the first global, programmatic marketplace. Through Lucid’s technology and innovation, the Marketplace now connects buyers and sellers of survey sample across the world. Since inception, thousands of sample buyers have managed over 5 million projects, for over 250 million completes, in 112 countries, among 350 sample suppliers. 

The strengths of Lucid lie within the dynamics of a true marketplace – our demand and supply-sides benefit from the transparent and open nature of the model. Lucid’s automated platform creates ongoing opportunities for buyers and sellers to connect with unprecedented reach – via multi-sourcing. It instantly connects buyers to hundreds of panels, identifies the exact respondents needed, and matches them to surveys immediately. Our Marketplace also reduces sampling bias because buyers know that their sample is coming from the widest pool of respondents.

The Lucid Marketplace allows users to set up detailed project specifications and launch within minutes. Many of the Marketplace’s unique functionalities are enabled by automation: its multi-panel feasibility; deduplication technology; blending capabilities; push-button fielding; and real-time analytics that enable informed decision making.

Unique respondents to date


Questions answered


Sample sources and recruitment

2. Please describe and explain the type(s) of online sample sources from which you get respondents. Are these databases? Actively managed research panels? Direct marketing lists? Social networks? Web intercept (also known as river) samples?

Buyers in the Lucid Marketplace are given full autonomy to select the vendors or types of sources they want to utilize. To ensure a diversity of choice, Lucid’s supply partners include double opt-in panels, publishing networks, social media, and other types of online communities. 

Over the past 12 months, the Lucid Marketplace has managed 350+ sample suppliers in 112 countries. Of the 400 million interviews conducted, 85% were delivered by double-opt in panels. The remaining 15% were sourced for supplying to panel builds and community recruits from publishing networks, social media and non-incentivized sample sources that are uniquely suited.

3. If you provide samples from more than one source: How are the different sample sources blended together to ensure validity? How can this be replicated over time to provide reliability? How do you deal with the possibility of duplication of respondents across sources?

All sample companies blend sample at either the recruitment level or panel level. The Lucid Marketplace acts as a Demand Side Platform (DSP) for buyers and gives complete control and transparency into sample suppliers. 

The supplier blend can be determined on a project-by-project basis or at the account level. Sample blends are easily duplicated over time with blend templates that can be applied at the project level – providing the same suppliers an identical or similar allocation of completes each time. Lucid Supplier Quality Scores can help ensure consistent and replicable sampling. 

We employ various deduplication methods with security options at the buyer account, survey group (e.g. multiple waves for tracker and wave studies), and individual survey (e.g. ad hoc projects) level:

  • IP address 
  • Unique Respondent identifier 
4. Are your sample source(s) used solely for market research? If not, what other purposes are they used for?

The Lucid Marketplace is used solely for market research purposes. Under no circumstances do we use our system to advertise or market to survey respondents. 

5. How do you source groups that may be hard to reach on the internet?

We are uniquely prepared to reach difficult audiences because of the Lucid Marketplace’s scale, programmatic targeting, and quota sampling technology. The Lucid Marketplace sources from over 350 sample suppliers, of which, many are specialty panels for given markets (e.g. Germany), demographics (e.g. Hispanics), or verticals (e.g. B2B). 

We maintain the largest virtual profiling capability in the industry. We have standardized profiling across the platform, allowing deep profiling into hard-to-reach segments across millions of respondents. 

Finally, with nearly three million respondents entering the Lucid Marketplace each day, our dynamic, in-the-moment targeting process enables buyers to reach low-incidence populations in real time. Users can directly coordinate feasibility and leverage the platform to target challenging segments as needed.

6. If, on a particular project, you need to supplement your sample(s) with sample(s) from other providers, how do you select those partners? Is it your policy to notify a client in advance when using a third party provider?

The Lucid Marketplace was designed to successfully implement, monitor, manage, and deliver projects using multiple sample sources and types – with complete transparency. Our Marketplace users fully control which suppliers are allowed to enter the project via the Marketplace Interface as well as passthrough supplier identifiers so that the sample mix can be tracked within the survey platform. While in-field, suppliers can be added or removed according to project requirements with complete transparency.

Additionally, when working with our Marketplace Services team, we notify all clients about bringing on new partners to complete their projects. We work with our clients to identify any additional partners they are utilizing to ensure we deduplicate them on our platform. 

Sampling and project management

7. What steps do you take to achieve a representative sample of the target population?

The Lucid Marketplace offers complete customization of quota setup, as well as templated quota breakouts for frequently used census representations. Additionally, our Marketplace Services team is well versed in determining the representative population of any census and customizing the survey setup to meet the project specifications. 

8. Do you employ a survey router?

The Lucid Marketplace employs API-integrated sampling to allocate surveys to respondents rather than rely on a survey router. Since 2016, Lucid provides an out-of-the-box integration that allows suppliers to leverage API technology without undergoing an involved development process. 

Lucid’s API-integrated sampling enables precision targeting of respondents with opportunities for which they qualify — simultaneously eliminating inefficiencies while enhancing the respondent experience. Additionally, Lucid Marketplace suppliers can customize their integrations with the Lucid Marketplace API to enable advanced targeting. 

9. If you use a router: Please describe the allocation process within your router. How do you decide which surveys might be considered for a respondent? On what priority basis are respondents allocated to surveys?

The Lucid Marketplace employs API-integrated sampling to allocate surveys to respondents –  and has nearly phased out its legacy router. As of January 2020, less than 25% of Lucid Marketplace traffic uses routing technology.

10. If you use a router: What measures do you take to guard against, or mitigate, any bias arising from employing a router? How do you measure and report any bias?

The Lucid Marketplace employs API-integrated sampling to allocate surveys to respondents — and has nearly phased out its legacy router. As of January 2020, less than 25% of Lucid Marketplace traffic uses routing technology.

11. If you use a router: Who in your company sets the parameters of the router? Is it a dedicated team or individual project managers?

The Lucid Marketplace employs API-integrated sampling to allocate surveys to respondents –   and has nearly phased out its legacy router. As of January 2020, less than 25% of Lucid Marketplace traffic uses routing technology. 

12. What profiling data is held on respondents? How is it done? How does this differ across sample sources? How is it kept up-to-date? If no relevant profiling data is held, how are low incidence projects dealt with?

One of Lucid’s core differentiators is our depth of profiling. Over the past eight years, more than 450 million respondents have been profiled across 28 billion data points.

Using their API integrations, suppliers can continuously update respondent profiles according to responses in the Lucid Marketplace. Additionally, to maximize the efficiency of our APIs, we receive real-time profile data from our supplier sources via the URL string and respondent validation data with our in-house Survey Protection features. 

The Lucid Marketplace stores all non-PII demographic, behavioral and category data points that are used to screen respondents. Profiling info is refreshed every 30 days.

13. Please describe your survey invitation process. What is the proposition that people are offered to take part in individual surveys? What information about the project itself is given in the process? Apart from direct invitations to specific surveys (or to a router), what other means of invitation to surveys are respondents exposed to? You should note that not all invitations to participate take the form of emails.

Survey invitations are handled by the Lucid Marketplace suppliers and can take many forms, including:

  • Targeted email invitation
  • Survey link within a respondent-facing platform
  • In-app notification from a webpage/offerwall of surveys 
  • SMS notification

The Lucid Marketplace provides suppliers with a number of metrics relevant to the health of the survey, such as Incidence Rate (IR), Length of Interview (LOI), Sample Size, Conversion Rate, Earnings Per Click (EPC), and basic demographic targeting (Age, Gender, Zip, etc). 

14. Please describe the incentives that respondents are offered for taking part in your surveys. How does this differ by sample source, by interview length, by respondent characteristics?

All incentives are handled by our supply partners. Each incentive program is unique. Incentives come in the form of:

  • Cash
  • Gift cards
  • Loyalty rewards
  • Charitable Donations
15. What information about a project do you need in order to give an accurate estimate of feasibility using your own resources?

Lucid Marketplace provides feasibility estimates with Reach, our proprietary feasibility  tool. To arrive at a feasibility estimate users input:

  • Demographic requirements
  • Incidence Rate
  • Number of Completes
  • Length of interview (LOI)
  • Desired CPI
  • Audience Targeting

It is important to note that estimates generated are not a guarantee of cost and feasibility. Other considerations may include:

  • Category requirements
  • Exclusions
16. Do you measure respondent satisfaction? Is this information made available to clients?

Lucid recommends all Marketplace clients measure and manage the respondent experience. In addition, Lucid provides suppliers with the information and tools to define and enhance their respondent satisfaction. Lucid recommends that suppliers:

  • Limit time spent qualifying for surveys by appending profiling information to entry links
  • Determine optimal survey lengths for their respondents and send accordingly
  • Develop a fair incentive structure given study specifications
17. What information do you provide to debrief your client after the project has finished?

One of the foundational beliefs of Lucid is end-to-end transparency. Marketplace clients have complete, 24/7 access to all survey-or system-related data in real-time during the project process directly through our web-based client reporting tools. 

Some metrics of interest include:

  • Conversion rate (the proportion of people who enter a survey and ultimately complete)
  • Mobile/tablet conversion
  • Incidence rate
  • Average LOI
  • Termination LOI

Data quality and validation

18. Who is responsible for data quality checks? If it is you, do you have in place procedures to reduce or eliminate undesired within survey behaviours, such as (a) random responding, (b) Illogical or inconsistent responding, (c) overuse of item non-response (e.g. “Don’t Know”) or (d) speeding (too rapid survey completion)? Please describe these procedures.

Our technology is built to ensure our clients receive accurate and secure results. We have developed data algorithms and employ security checks to authorize respondent identities and behaviors. These checks help to eliminate poor quality respondents from taking surveys.

The Lucid Marketplace can identify and terminate respondents that exhibit the following fraudulent behaviors:

  • Respondent’s IP is outside of the survey country
  • An allotted variance from the LOI (e.g. 30% allows completes up to 9 minutes faster/slower than a 30 minute LOI)
  • The respondent did not enter/return from the Lucid Marketplace/client survey with the expected encryption variables

In addition, we work with our partners to examine reconciliations and identify respondents that don’t meet the quality standards of our clients. 

19. How often can the same individual be contacted to take part in a survey within a specified period whether they respond to the contact or not? How does this vary across your sample sources?

All Lucid Marketplace buyers have the ability to block respondents against associated surveys or industry categories to prevent respondents from repeating a tracker or survey topic category – for customized periods of time for each project. Sample sources compete with one another to optimize how they recruit, retain, and incentivize survey respondents within our platform, based on respondent’s efficiency and response quality. 

Each supplier in the Lucid Marketplace makes independent determinations as to the frequency of respondent activity. 

20. How often can the same individual take part in a survey within a specified period? How does this vary across your sample sources? How do you manage this within categories and/or time periods?

Sample buyers determine the frequency of an individual’s activity within a specified period. We deduplicate within a survey, survey group, or category by IP, participant ID, or cookies. These settings are easily accessed and adjusted through Marketplace Interface.

21. Do you maintain individual level data such as recent participation history, date of entry, source, etc., on your survey respondents? Are you able to supply your client with a project analysis of such individual level data?

The Lucid Marketplace tracks individual-level data such as recent participation history, date of entry, and supplier source information. Lucid can access this information at any time and provide the data to clients upon request.

22. Do you have a confirmation of respondent identity procedure? Do you have procedures to detect fraudulent respondents? Please describe these procedures as they are implemented at sample source registration and/or at the point of entry to a survey or router. If you offer B2B samples what are the procedures there, if any?

The Lucid Marketplace can confirm identity and deduplicate respondents based on any combination of the following:

  • Geo-IP address
  • Cookie Identifier
  • Device Identifiers 
  • Panelist identification number (PID)
  • Lucid respondent identification number
  • Custom data points sent by the supplier
  • Invalid traffic information
  • LinkedIn information (optional, B2B) 

Lucid attempts to prevent fraudulent behaviors by:

  • Comparing geo-IP with survey country
  • Validating encrypted variables upon exit and entry from the Lucid Marketplace and the client survey
  • Preventing users below a buyer’s Relevant ID threshold from entering
  • Implementing Secure Client Callback, a server-to-server endpoint that connects survey platforms directly to the Lucid Marketplace, preventing potential fraudulent activity from misrepresenting completes.
  • Hashing respondent redirects to prevent URL manipulation

Policies and compliance

23. Please describe the ‘opt-in for market research’ processes for all your online sample sources.

Compliance with opt-in standards are vital to the safety and security of the Lucid Marketplace. We conduct rigorous analysis of the opt-in processes for all suppliers. 95% of survey completes via the Lucid Marketplace originate from double-opt in supplier sources. All sample sources on our platform that utilize email recruitment must follow all industry standard double-opt in procedures. 

Additionally, as respondents screen for surveys, we opt-in each one from every country, in plain language to the standard Lucid cookie and privacy policies. This ensures a global consistent standard that sample buyers can rely upon. 

For all respondents identified via IP geolocation, they are required to give opt-in consent (while presenting them with our privacy policy, cookie policy and respondent code of conduct). They are then asked to ensure compliance with GDPR minimum age requirements.

24. Please provide a link to your Privacy Policy. How is your Privacy Policy provided to your respondents?

Our privacy policy appears as a link at the bottom of each page in the Lucid Marketplace and is present throughout the screening process. 

25. Please describe the measures you take to ensure data protection and data security.

Data protection, security, and privacy are hallmarks of the Lucid Marketplace.

No respondent PII (first name, last name in combination with another identifier) is collected or stored in the Lucid Marketplace. Our customers can also be assured that our servers and databases are actively managed by security protocols, firewalls and limited access procedures, to prevent theft or destruction of data. Moreover, our entire system is in the ‘cloud’ through Amazon Web Services (AWS) for added backup and security. 

Additionally, the Lucid Marketplace obfuscates buyer information and allows the buyer to choose the exact elements of a survey that are exposed to respondents directly. 

26. What practices do you follow to decide whether online research should be used to present commercially sensitive client data or materials to survey respondents?

The Lucid Marketplace acts as a DSP where buyers indicate the kind of research being conducted and whether, or not, there is any sensitive content. Example indications include: survey type, survey industry, any collection of PII, and the presence of explicit content. 

The transparency enabled by the Lucid Marketplace allows suppliers to choose the proper survey opportunity for their respondents and panelists. 

27. Are you certified to any specific quality system? If so, which one(s)?

The Lucid Marketplace ensures the highest quality through rigorous management of respondents, suppliers and technology. This is done with the Lucid Quality Program, the Partner Improvement Program, and an increasing number of security features on the platform.

The Lucid Quality Program, launched in 2015 and, updated on quarterly-basis, is an independent benchmarking study that measures and reports on supplier quality across the Lucid Marketplace. Designed in concert with Chuck Miller of DM2, the Lucid Quality Program consists of three elements:

  • The first is a quarterly benchmarking survey that measures response quality. That benchmarking survey also measures each supply source on respondent behavioral attributes of interest to market researchers; such as tech-adoption and brand awareness. 
  • Next those behavioral attributes are used in a time-series comparison that measures a supplier’s source consistency. 
  • Finally we look at platform-wide customer satisfaction with each supplier based on reconciliation rates. 

In combination, these three measures are indexed for each seller so that buyers are able to make procurement and blending decisions accordingly. 

Buyers are encouraged to use the Quality Program scores, in addition to our feasibility tools to select the right sample suppliers for their needs. 

The Partner Improvement Program, created in 2017, is a monthly audit of supplier reconciliation rates. Potentially leading to supplier removal, in cases where reconciliation rates are higher than the acceptable rate. 

Our Marketplace Services team limits the supplier mix on most projects to those research panels that are among the highest scorers in the Lucid Quality program. 

28. Do you conduct online surveys with children and young people? If so, do you adhere to the standards that ESOMAR provides? What other rules or standards, for example COPPA in the United States, do you comply with?

Lucid complies with applicable laws prohibiting the solicitation of minors for survey research. In markets where youth research is permissible, Lucid supports our client sampling needs under strict adherence to ESOMAR guidelines as well as local law (e.g. COPPA, individual member state implementation of GDPR, etc.), and associations (e.g. CASRO).

Lucid has a worldwide age floor of 13 for all respondents. In the EU, we follow each individual country’s GDPR implementation law for minimum ages.

Lucid does not allow respondents under the statutory minimum age as we do not have a parental verification mechanism.

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